Transformation: A Means Of Genetic Transfer

May 27, 2018

Transformation is the genetic alteration of the cell which is the result of uptake, incorporation and expression of exogenous genetic material that’s taken up through cell membrane. It occurs in bacteria and a few species in a pure manner. Transformation is also caused be artificial means. Compounds that bear the capacity of undergoing transformation either by their own or by artificial means are termed as capable. Genetic material can be traded between two bacterial cells either by conjugation or transduction. Conjugation involves direct transfer of genetic material from 1 cell to another through intimate contact. Introduction of this foreign DNA into the eukaryotic cells is called transfection. Transduction may also be used as a tool for the introduction of foreign DNA into a non-bacterial mobile that might be a plant cell or an animal cell.

Transformation was initially demonstrated by an English bacteriologist Frederick Griffith in 1928 who was looking for a vaccine against bacterial pneumonia. He found that a harmless strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae can be made virulent if subjected to the heat killed virulent strains. He suspected that there’s some transforming factor present that has the capacity for making the harmless and non-virulent strain to become virulent and harmful. Later on in 1944 this changing variable was found to be related to genetics and identified by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty. They isolated the DNA from the virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae and with the support of the genetic material they were able to make the benign non-virulent strain. They called this uptake and incorporation of DNA by the germs as transforamation. Transformation did not come to be the normal procedure until 1972 when Stanley Cohen, Annie Chang and Leslie Hsu successfully altered Escherichia coli by treating the bacteria with calcium chloride. They created an efficient and suitable procedure that became a landmark in the field of biotechnology and study.

Estrogen Biohacking by using electroporation was developed in the late 1980s when the efficiency and the amount of bacterial cells can be raised through conversion. Transformation of plant cell and animal cell was also started and the first transgenic mouse was produced in 1982. In 1907 a bacterium named as Agrobacterium tumefaciens was found which was in charge of causing tumors at the plants and the tumor inducing agent was discovered to be DNA plasmid known as Ti-plasmid. Bacterial transformation could be called as a stable genetic change brought about by uptake of foreign DNA and proficiency might be described as the condition of having the ability to choose the exogenous DNA in the environment. Competence may be artificial or natural. Approximately 1 percent of the bacterial population is able to spend the DNA naturally beneath the laboratory conditions and a lot more species have been known to carry up the foreign DNA in their natural environment. These germs take a set of genes that provide the protein machines to deliver the DNA throughout the cell membrane. The transfer of genetic material between two distinct strains of bacteria is called as horizontal gene transfer.